壠掚嫵巘側峀応
be摦帉傪彆摦帉偲偟偰巊偆暥偼丄恑峴宍偲庴摦懺偺2偮偑偁傞

丂丂恑峴宍丂亖丂be彆摦帉丂+丂尰嵼暘帉
丂丂庴摦懺丂亖丂be彆摦帉丂+丂夁嫀暘帉丂

侾乯 恑峴宍丂
a乯 ing 偺晅偗曽丂
丂丂ing 偺晅偗曽偼丄摦帉丒彆摦帉偺愡偱愢柧偟偰偄傞偺偱丄偙偙偱偼徣偔丅

b乯 堄枴乽乣偟偰偄傑偡丄偟偰偄傑偟偨丄偄傞偱偟傚偆乿丂
丂丂恑峴宍偲尵偭偰傕丄
尰嵼恑峴宍丄夁嫀恑峴宍丄枹棃恑峴宍丄尰嵼姰椆恑峴宍丄夁嫀姰椆恑峴宍丄枹棃姰椆
丂丂恑峴宍丄寁6偮偁傞丅丂
姰椆恑峴宍偼丄姰椆偺強偱丄愢柧偡傞偺偱丄嵟弶偺3偮偺椺傪嫇偘傞丅
丂丂丂
峬掕暥 斲掕暥 媈栤暥
尰嵼 Kayo is cooking dinner. Kayo isn't cooking dinner. Is Kayo cooking dinner ?
僇儓偼梉怘傪椏棟偟偰偄傑偡 偟偰偄傑偣傫 偟偰偄傑偡偐
夁嫀 You were sleeping. You weren't sleeping. Were you sleeping ?
婱曽偼怮偰偄傑偟偨 偄傑偣傫偱偟偨 偄傑偟偨偐
枹棃 He will be going fishing.丂 He won't be going fishing. Will he be going fishing ?
斵偼掁傝偵峴偭偰偄傞偱偟傚偆 偄側偄偱偟傚偆 偄傞偱偟傚偆偐

丂丂亙庤弴偲儖乕儖亜
丂丂鶣) 尰嵼丄夁嫀恑峴宍偼

丂丂丂丂
峬掕暥:丂庡岅偲帪惂偵崌傢偣偨be摦帉傪慖傃丄尰嵼暘帉偺慜偵抲偔丅
丂丂丂丂斲掕暥:丂
be摦帉偵 not 傪晅偗傞丅
丂丂丂丂媈栤暥:丂
be摦帉傪庡岅偺慜偵堏摦偝偣傞丅
丂丂鶤) 枹棃恑峴宍偱偼丄峏偵 will 傪巊偄丄
丂丂丂丂峬掕暥:丂
will 傪be摦帉偺慜偵抲偒丄尨宆偺 be 偵栠偟丄尰嵼暘帉傪懕偗傞丅
丂丂丂丂斲掕暥:丂
will 偵 not 傪晅偗傞丅丂will not = won't
丂丂丂丂媈栤暥:丂
will 傪庡岅偺慜偵堏摦偝偣傞丅

丂丂鶤乯偼彆摦帉傪2偮巊偆帠偵側傞丅丂will 仺 be 偺弴偱偡丅丂場傒偵丄枹棃姰椆恑峴宍偲尵偆挿偭偨傜偟偄偺
丂丂偑偁傞偑丄偙偺応崌丄3偮偺彆摦帉偑昁梫偱丄will 仺 have 仺 been 偺弴偱偡丅丂堄枴偑嫮偄弴偱偡偐偹丠丂

丂丂丂丂丂丂杮彆摦帉丂仺丂堦斒摦帉寭彆摦帉丂仺丂be摦帉寭彆摦帉

丂丂丂丂Takuya
will have been playing DS for 3 hours if her mother doesn't tells him to stop.
丂丂丂丂乽戩栫偼丄傕偟斵偺曣偑巭傔傠偲尵傢側偗傟偽丄俁帪娫
偢偭偲DS傪傗傝懕偗偰偄偨偙偲偵側傞丅乿

丂丂傑偀丄be彆摦帉偼恑峴宍傪宍惉偡傞堊偵尰嵼暘帉偺捈慜側偺偱丄嵟屻偵抲偒丄have 偼姰椆宍傪宍惉偡傞
丂丂堊偵 乮be偺乯夁嫀暘帉 been 偺捈慜偵抲偔偺偱丄俀斣栚偱丄will偼偦偺慜偵側傞丅

丂丂尰嵼恑峴宍偺
now丄夁嫀恑峴宍偺 then 偼丄傛偔巊傢傟傞暃帉偱偡丅 乽尰嵼恑峴宍傪夁嫀恑峴宍偵偟側
丂丂偝偄乿偲尵偆栤戣偱偼丄be摦帉傪夁嫀宍偵偡傞偩偗偱側偔丄now 傪 then 偵偡傞帠傕朰傟側偄條偵両

丂丂丂丂Tonny
is walking along the river now.丂丂仺丂丂Tonny was walking along the river then.

c乯 嬤愙枹棃丂
丂丂恑峴宍偑崱恑峴拞偺弌棃帠傪尵偆偺偱側偔丄
嬤乆婲偒傞帠傪弎傋傞応崌偑偁傞丅
丂丂彆摦帉 will 偺強偱愢柧偡傞
be going to 偵傕抲偒姺偊傜傟偰丄徯夘偝傟偰偄傞丅丂傎傏摨偠堄枴偩偑丄
丂丂庒姳堘偄丄
嬤愙枹棃偺曽偑峴側傢傟傞壜擻惈偑崅偄

丂丂丂丂He
is leaving here for Tokyo tomorrow.
丂丂丂丂乽斵偼柧擔搶嫗偵岦偗偰偙偙傪弌敪偡傞丅乿
丂丂丂丂佮 He
is going to leave here for Tokyo tomorrow.丂
丂丂丂丂亖 He'
s gonna leave here for Tokyo tomorrow.

丂丂恑峴宍側偺偵丄
tomorrow 偑偁傞偺偱丄曄偱偡偹丅丂傑偀丄尵偭偰傒傟偽丄乽柧擔偵岦偗偰丄弌敪偺弨旛傪
丂丂傗偭偰偄傞嵟拞偱偡丅乿埵偺堄枴偱偡丅丂寢峔丄夛榖偺拞偱傕丄傛偔巊偆偺偱丄妎偊偰偄偰壓偝偄丅丂
丂丂tomorrow 偺條側偼偭偒傝偟偨暃帉偑柍偔偰傕丄夛榖拞偱偼丄慜屻偺堄枴偱嬤愙枹棃偲敾傞巊偄曽傪偡傞丅
丂丂
gonna 偼丄be going to 偺偔偩偗偨乮岥岅乯昞尰偱偡丅丂

d乯 恑峴宍偵弌棃側偄摦帉丂
丂丂忬懺傪昞偡摦帉偼丄婎杮揑偵恑峴宍偵偼弌棃側偄丅丂棟桼偼丄偙傟傜偺摦帉偵偼丄恑峴拞偺堄枴偑娷傑傟
丂丂偰偄傞偺偱丄恑峴宍偵偡傞偲丄曄側堄枴偵側傞偐傜偱偡丅

丂丂丂丂
like, love, hate, know, believe, want, see, hear, have, belong,,,,,

丂丂扐偟丄
嬤愙枹棃偺堄枴偱巊偆応崌偼丄暿偺榖偱偁傞丅丂乽Loving you乿偲尵偆壧偑偁傞偑丄乽垽偟偦偆偵側傞乿
丂丂偺堄枴偱偡丅

俀乯 庴摦懺丂
庴摦懺庴恎宍偲傕尵偄傑偡丄偑丄傛偔敾傝傑偣傫傛偹両丂娙扨偵尵偊偽丄庡岅偲栚揑岅傪擖傟懼偊偰摨偠
丂堄枴偵側傞條偵偟偨傕偺
丅丂枹偩丄敾傝傑偣傫偹丅丂塸岅偱愢柧偡傞慜偵擔杮岅偱彂偄偰傒傞偲丄

丂丂丂丂擻摦暥丂乽斵偼斵彈傪垽偟偰偄傞乿丂仺丂庴摦暥丂乽斵彈偼斵偐傜垽
偝傟偰偄傞乿
丂丂丂丂丂
丂昞尰偼堘偆偑尵偭偰偄傞帠偼摨偠偱偟傚偆丅丂
栚揑岅偑庡岅偵側傞偺偱丄擻摦暥偼丄栚揑岅偑偁傞戞嶰暥宆丄
丂戞巐暥宆丄戞屲暥宆偺3偮偲側傞丅

丂亙庤弴偲儖乕儖亜
丂丂1丏
栚揑岅偼庡奿偵曄峏偟偰庡岅偺埵抲傊堏摦偡傞丅
丂丂2丏摦帉偼
夁嫀暘帉偵曄峏偡傞丅
丂丂3丏
庡岅偲帪惂偵崌傢偣偨be摦帉傪夁嫀暘帉偺慜偵抲偔丅丂
丂丂4丏扐偟丄擻摦暥偑媈栤暥偺応崌偼丄be摦帉偼暥摢偵抲偄偰媈栤暥偵丄斲掕暥偺応崌偼丄乽be摦帉+not乿偲
丂丂丂丂偟偰斲掕暥偵偡傞丅
丂丂5丏
庡岅偼栚揑奿偵曄峏偟丄by 傪慜偵敽偭偰丄夁嫀暘帉偺屻偵抲偔丅

a乯 戞嶰暥宆偐傜丂
丂丂
忋偺擔杮岅暥傪塸岅偵偡傞偲丄

丂丂丂擻摦暥丗 He loves her. 丂丂
him loved she 丂丂he 偺栚揑奿偼 him丄her 偺庡奿偼 She
+ + 丂丂
by is 丂丂嶰扨尰側偺偱丄is
暥枛 暥摢
丂丂
丂丂丂丂庴摦暥丗丂She is loved by him.
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂乽斵彈偼斵偐傜垽偝傟偰偄傞丅乿丂

b乯 戞巐暥宆偐傜丂偐傜丂
丂丂栚揑岅偑
2偮偁傞偺偱丄庴摦暥傕2偮弌棃傞丅

丂丂丂丂椺暥丗丂乽巹偺愭惗偼巹偵戲嶳偺杮傪梌偊偨丅乿

丂丂丂丂擻摦暥丗丂My teacher gave me many books.

丂丂嘆 My teacher gave me many books. 丂丂
my teacher given I me 偺庡奿偼 I
+ +
by was I 偑庡岅偱夁嫀宍側偺偱丄was
暥枛 暥摢
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂 丂丂
丂丂丂丂庴摦暥丗丂I was given many books by my teacher.丂
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂乽巹偼巹偺愭惗
偐傜懡偔偺杮傪梌偊傜傟偨丅乿丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂

My teacher gave me many books.
my teacher given me many books many books 偑庡岅偵
+ +
+
to
by were 庡岅偑暋悢宍夁嫀宍側偺偱丄were
娫愙栚揑岅偺慜偵慜抲帉 to 傪抲偔
暥枛 暥摢
丂丂丂丂丂丂 丂丂
丂丂丂丂庴摦暥丗丂Many books were given to me by my teacher.丂
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂乽懡偔偺杮偼巹偺愭惗
偐傜梌偊傜傟偨丅乿

丂丂
捈愙栚揑岅偑庡岅偵側傞応崌偼丄娫愙栚揑岅偺慜偵慜抲帉乮to丄for乯傪抲偐側偗傟偽側傜側偄丅丂
丂丂
抲偔傋偒慜抲帉偼屲暥宆偺戞巐暥宆偺復偱丄乽戞巐暥宆傪戞嶰暥宆偵偡傞乿偺愢柧偲摨偠傕偺傪梡偄傞丅丂

c乯 戞屲暥宆偐傜丂
丂丂b乯-嘆梫椞偲摨偠偱偁傞丅
丂丂丂丂椺暥丗丂乽奆偼斵傪働儞偲屇傃傑偡偐丠乿

丂丂丂擻摦暥丗 Does everyone call him丂 Ken ?
徚柵 everyone called he 丂 Ken ? him 偺庡奿偼 he
+
+
is
by 嶰扨尰側偺偱丄is
暥枛 丂暥摢 庡岅偺埵抲傊 媈栤暥側偺偱丄is 偺傒暥摢傊
丂丂丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂庴摦暥丗Is he called Ken by everyone ?丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂乽斵偼奆
偐傜働儞偲屇偽傟偰偄傑偡偐丠乿

丂丂擻摦暥偑媈栤暥側偺偱丄
庴摦暥傕媈栤暥偵偡傞丅

丂丂丂丂椺暥丗丂乽巹払偼斵彈偑僶儗乕儃乕儖傪偡傞偺傪尒偨乿

丂丂丂丂擻摦暥 We saw her play vallyball.
丂伀
us seen she to play vallyball. her 偺庡奿偼 she丄尨宍晄掕帉偼to晅偒晄掕帉偵
+ +
by was 嶰恖徧扨悢丄夁嫀側偺偱丄was
暥枛 暥摢
丂丂丂丂庴摦暥丗丂She was seen to play valleyball by us.丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂乽斵彈偼巹払
僶儗乕儃乕儖傪偡傞偺傪
傜傟偨乿

丂丂
抦妎摦帉丄巊栶摦帉偱偺栚揑奿曗岅偺尨宍晄掕帉偼丄庴摦懺偱偼丄to晅偒晄掕帉偲側傞偺偱丄梫拲堄両

d乯 姷梡嬪偵側偭偨庴摦懺丂
丂丂杮棃丄庴摦懺偱偁傞偑丄姷梡嬪壔偟偰丄
宍梕帉揑偵埖傢傟傞傕偺偑懡偔偁傝丄慜抲帉偼 by 偱側偔丄懠偺
丂丂傕偺偑巊傢傟傞丅丂僥僗僩偺梫拲堄崁栚偱偡偹丅丂埫婰偟傑偟傚偆両 扐偟丄偙偙偵彂偐傟偰偄傞慜抲帉偼
丂丂庡偵巊傢傟傞傕偺偱偁傝丄屻偵棃傞 B丗柤帉乮嬪丄愡乯偱曄傢傞偺偱丄奺帺丄挷傋偰壓偝偄丅

丂丂丒 A be born. 丂丂A偼惗傑傟偨
丂丂丒 A be surprised at B. 丂丂A偼B嬃偄偰偄傞
丂丂丒 A be pleased with B. 丂丂A偼B婥偵擖傞
丂丂丒 A be satisfied with B.丂丂丂丂 丂丂A偼B枮懌偟偰偄傞
丂丂丒 A be interested in B. 丂丂A偼B嫽枴傪帩偭偰偄傞
丂丂丒 A be disappointed in B. 丂丂A 偼B幐朷偟偰偄傞丅.
丂丂丒 A be made from B. 丂丂A偽B乮尨椏偐傜弌棃偰偄傞 椺乯僠乕僘偲媿擕偺娭學
丂丂丒 A be made of B. 丂丂A偽B乮嵽椏偐傜弌棃偰偄傞 椺乯婘偲嵽栘偺娭學
丂丂丒 A be known to B. 丂 丂丂A偼B抦傜傟偰偄傞
丂丂丒 A be covered with B. 丂丂A偼B暍傢傟偰偄傞

丂丂surprise 偼 乽
嬃偐偡乿 側偺偱丄surprised 偼 乽嬃偐偝傟偨乿 偲側傝丄夞傝偔偳偄昞尰傪旔偗丄乽嬃偄偨乿 偲
丂丂側偭偨丅丂bear 乽
嶻傑偣傞乿丄satisfy 乽枮懌偝偣傞乿丄please 乽婌偽偣傞乿丄interest 乽嫽枴傪帩偨偣傞乿丄
丂丂disappoint 乽
幐朷偝偣傞乿 傕摨條偱偡丅

丂丂偠傖丄壗屘丄by 偱側偄傫偱偟傚偆偐丠丂偙偙偱丄擻摦暥仺庴摦暥偺彂偒姺偊偵栠偭偰傒傞偲丄

丂丂丂丂She pleased me
with a present.丂 仺丂I was pleased with a present by her.
丂丂丂丂乽
斵彈偼憽傝暔巹傪婌偽偣偨丅乿丂丂丂丂乽巹偼斵彈傛偭偰乯憽傝暔婌偽偝傟偨丅乿
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂 by her 傪徣偄偰丗 乽巹偼憽傝暔
婌傫偩丅乿

丂丂丂丂They make cheese from milk.丂丂丂仺丂Cheese is made from milk by them.
丂丂丂丂乽
斵摍偼媿擕偐傜僠乕僘傪
嶌傞丅乿丂丂 丂丂乽僠乕僘偼斵摍傛偭偰乯媿擕偐傜嶌傜傟傞丅乿丂丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂 by them 傪徣偄偰丗 乽僠乕僘偼媿擕
偐傜弌棃偰偄傞丅乿

丂丂暘傝傑偟偨偐丠丂
杮棃偼丄by 乣 偑偁偭偰丄徣偐傟偨偩偗偱偡丅丂摿偵丄by them 偼堦斒揑側恖偱丄e乯偵帵
丂丂偡條偵丄傛偔徣偐傟傞丅丂峫偊偰傒傟偽丄憽傝暔偑捈愙丄恖傪婌偽偡峴堊傪偡傞栿偱側偔丄
媅恖揑偵偦偆昞尰
丂丂
偡傞偩偗偱偡丅丂丂乽庡岅 + 摦帉 + 栚揑岅 + 慜抲帉 + 栚揑岅乿偺暥偺慜抲帉偑巆傝丄by 乣 偑徚偊偨
丂丂偱丄
擖傟懼傢偭偨條偵尒偊偨偩偗偱偡偹丅丂丂丂
丂丂媡偵丄by them 傪徣偄偨庴摦暥偐傜擻摦暥偵栠偡帪丄
丂丂丂丂Milk makes cheese. 乽媿擕偼僠乕僘傪嶌傞丅乿
丂丂偲側偭偨傜丄曄偩偲敾傝傑偡傛偹丅

丂丂昅幰偼丄拞妛帪戙偵丄乽by偺戙傢傝偵丄at丄with丄from摍傪巊偆乿偲廗偭偨偑丄屻偱塕偩偭偨偲敾偭偰丄乽壗屘
丂丂僉僠儞偲愢柧偟偰偔傟側偐偭偨偺偐両乿偲丄庒姳搟傝傪姶偠傑偟偨丅丂娵妎偊偑寵偄偩偭偨偺偱丄梋寁偵偦偆巚
丂丂偄傑偟偨偹丅丂丂怓乆尵偆偲丄惗搆偑崿棎偟丄塸岅偑寵偄偵側傞偲偱傕丄暥晹徣偑巚偭偨偺偱偟傚偆偐丠

丂丂杮棃丄夁嫀暘帉偱偁傞偺偱丄嫮挷亖乽旕忢偵乿偡傞応崌丄much 傪巊偆偺偱偁傞偑丄偙傟傜偺応崌丄嵟憗丄
丂丂
宍梕帉壔偟偰偄傞堊丄very 傪巊偆帠偑懡偄丅

丂丂丂丂I was
very surprised at the news. 丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂乽巹偼偦偺僯儏乕僗偵旕忢偵嬃偄偨丅乿

e乯 慜抲帉嬪傪徣偔応崌丂
丂丂乽by 栚揑奿乿偑堦斒揑恖傗暔傪昞偡応崌丄徣偐傟傞偙偲偑偁傞丅

丂丂丂丂They speaks English in Australlia. 丂丂丂丂丂丂丂
丂丂丂丂乽僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偱偼塸岅傪榖偡丅乿
丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂伀
丂丂丂丂English is spoken in Australlia (
by them).丂丂
丂丂丂丂乽僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偱偼塸岅偑榖偝傟傞丅乿

丂丂偙偺応崌丄
they 偼僆乕僗僩儔儕傾恖偺堄枴偱丄擻摦暥偱傕栿偝側偄埵側偺偱丄庴摦暥偱傕徣棯偝傟傞帠偑
丂丂懡偄丅

儂乕儉
摦帉丒彆摦帉
帪惂
be 彆摦帉
have 彆摦帉
偦偺懠偺彆摦帉
壖掕朄
徣偐傟偰 偄傞偩偗 側傫偩偀両
be摦帉偼丄 摥偒幰両